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Costa Rica


How can Costa Rica respond to local and global challenges while securing the functionality of its natural and human systems?

The SFS Center for Sustainable Development Studies (CSDS) in Costa Rica presents the third cycle of its five-year research plan (5YRP), covering the period 2013-2017, as part of its unique model of research and education in study abroad programs. The topics of the research plan are identified after a review of the current status of natural resources and biodiversity protection of Costa Rica. The plan is developed through an interactive and collaborative process involving SFS staff, local managers of natural resources, and local communities, and is based on the results of our previous investigations. Research results are presented to these stakeholders to facilitate informed decision-making to better manage environmental resources and ecosystem services, as well as to maintain the stability and integrity of the communities that depend on them.


We hope to increase public environmental awareness and concern for maintaining healthy ecosystems, especially in communities affected by tourism and environmental degradation.        


Costa Rica has taken a comprehensive approach to protect its rich biodiversity. The National System of Protected Areas (SINAC) is organized into II conservation areas, which comprise 26 per cent of the mainland territory and 17 per cent of the country's national waters. A sustained effort to establish protected areas has reversed record-high deforestation rates and resulted in the recuperation of 52 per cent the forest cover by 2012. Despite its initial success, the structure of SINAC has been weakened by increased bureaucracy, chronic lack of funding, a weak legal framework, and weak enforcement of the existing regulations, lack of government vision, and lack of community integration.

Effective management of natural resources and the protection of biodiversity are essential for securing the future welfare of Costa Rica. However, critical management decisions are often based on little research, or are affected by strong interests focused on short-term economic gain. In addition, the country has experienced a rapid transition from an agriculture-based to a service-based economy, and thus faces many negative impacts from globalization, such as rapid urban expansion, decreased food security, and expansion of monocrop plantations. This heavily impacts biodiversity and the human communities that depend on it.

Besides the fluctuating economy, natural phenomena triggered by climate change present some of the most critical challenges that make the re-organization of land-use practices and development policies (e.g., the relocation of coastal communities) an urgent imperative. Tourism continues to be the main source of national revenue, but it needs to be managed properly to guarantee that it will be ecologically sustainable, and that its benefits will be shared by investors and local communities alike. The current threats to biodiversity protection are the rapid conversion of rural into urban areas with the consequent forest loss and habitat fragmentation, the globalization of agriculture {increased monocrop plantations servicing international markets as opposed to local food production), the occupation of prime real estate by foreign investors with the resulting displacement of local communities, inappropriate waste disposal, increased pollution, and greater demands and competition for water resources.


This state of affairs justifies the question driving our new research plan: How can Costa Rica respond to local and global challenges while securing the functionality of its natural and human systems? Research will stem from two consolidated thematic components:

1. Relationships between conservation and economic development; and

2. Ecosystem function and connectivity

Research focused on the first component will analyze the ecological and socio-economic drivers and impacts of land-use/land cover changes, the valuation of ecosystem services, the management of biophysical and socio-economic impacts of tourism, alternatives for sustainable development in and around protected areas, and the current strategies for human mitigation/adaptation to climate change. Tourism continues to be the most important source of revenue and one of the major aspects of globalization, and thus, its proper management is critical for environmental and economic sustainability, especially in areas of massive visitation. Under the new research agenda CSDS will focus on the analysis of increased tourism visitation on biodiversity protection and infrastructure needs within protected areas, as well as on the socioeconomic make-up and human capital of nearby communities.

The second component will examine the production of ecosystem services by land-use units (i.e., farms and managed forests) as well as at the landscape level, ecosystem responses to climate change, fluctuations in biodiversity within protected areas, impacts of land-use changes on natural resources and ecosystem services, ecological impacts of infrastructure on biodiversity, and the disturbances on wildlife caused by visitation to protected areas.


Through the implementation of our SYRP and delivery of research results to key decision makers, we expect to improve the local ability to protect, conserve, manage and monitor natural resources and ecosystem health at different scales. By doing so, we hope to increase public environmental awareness and concern for maintaining healthy ecosystems, especially in communities affected by tourism, uncontrolled urban expansion, and environmental degradation. This process provides a field -based experience to SFS students; improve the skills and expertise of SFS faculty and partner participants; and strengthen our technical collaboration with governmental agencies, local communities and NGOs.

The major beneficiaries of our research and related outreach activities comprise rural and peri-urban communities in the Central Valley Pacific Region; governmental agencies responsible for protecting and conserving natural ecosystems; local community leaders in the business, tourism, industry, education, public health, and governance sectors; municipalities and branches of government offices such as the Ministry of the Environment and the Ministry of Health, as well as several local universities and research institutions, and additional organizations interested in the protection and conservation of the natural resources and the ecological health of Costa Rica.


* Indicates SFS student, ^ indicates SFS intern or SAM

Aguirre, J. 2007. Asignacion de recursos, satisfaccion del visitante, admnistracion y manejo de parques nacionales en Costa Rica, Honduras y Nicaragua. PASOS. Revista de Turismo y Patrimonio Cultural 5: 353-370.

Aguirre, J. A. 2006a. Estado de las relaciones del Parque Nacional Monumento Arquelogico Guayabo con las comunidades de Santa Cruz de Turrialba y Guayabo, Costa Rica. PASOS. Revista de Turismo y Patrimonio Cultural 4: 69-83.

—. 2006b. Linking national parks with its gateway communities for tourism development in Central America: Nindiri, Nicaragu, Bagazit, Costa Rica y Portobelo, Panama. PASOS Revista de Turismo y Patrimonio Cultura 4: 351-371.

—. 2006c. Resource allocation, visitors' satisfaction, and management of national parks in Costa Rica, Honduras, and Nicaragua. Interamerican Journal of Environment and Tourism 2: 16-31.

—. 2008. Midiendo el impacto economico del gasto turistico de los visitantes a los Parques Nacionales de Costa Rica. PASOS Revista de Turismo y Patrimonio Cultura 6: 11-26.

Arévalo, J. E. 2006. Reseña de libros: M. Kapelle and SP Horn (eds). 2005. Páramos de Costa Rica. Brenesia 65: 85-86.

Arévalo, J. E. 2010. Efecto de la reducción del hábitat sobre la ecología de especies de aves de bosque en la Zona Protectora Arenal-Monteverde, Costa Rica (The effect of habitat reduction on the ecology of forest birds species in Arenal-Monteverde Protected Zone), Costa Rica. Boletín de Ciencia y Tecnología 94, available online:

Arévalo, J. E. 2010. Evaluación sobre aves silvestres mantenidas en cautiverio en comunidades cercanas al Volcán Poás. Zeledonia 14: 1-11.

Arévalo, J. E., and K. Newhard^. 2011. Traffic noise affects forest bird species in a protected tropical forest. International Journal of Tropical Biology and Conservation 59(2): 969-980.

Arévalo, J. E., and M. Araya Salas. 2013. Collared forest-falcon (Micrastur semitorquatus) preying on chestnut-mandibled toucan (Ramphastos swainsonii) in Costa Rica. The Wilson Journal of Ornithology, 125(1), 212-216.

Avalos, G. 2004. Production of second set of stilt roots in iriartoid palms: A solution to the puzzle. Palms 48: 83-85.

—. 2005. Banded-tailed Pigeon (Columba fasciata) at low elevations in Braulio Carrillo National Park, Costa Rica. Ornitologia Neotropical 16: 1-2.

—. 2007. Book comment: M. Kapelle and SP Horn. 2005. Páramos de Costa Rica. Revista de Biología Tropical 55: 743-744.

Avalos, G., K. Hoell, J. Gardner*, S. Anderson*, and C. Lee*. 2006. Impact of the invasive species Syzigium jambos (Myrtaceae, Rose Apple) on patterns of understory seedling abundance in a Tropical Premontane Forest, Costa Rica. Revista de Biología Tropical 54: 414-421.

Avalos, G., and S. S. Mulkey. 2004. Photochemical efficiency of adult and young leaves in the neotropical understory shrub Psychotria limonensis (Rubiaceae) in response to changes in the light environment. Revista de Biología Tropical 52: 839-844.

Avalos, G., S. S. Mulkey, K. Kitajima, and S. J. Wright. 2007. Colonization strategies of two liana species in a tropical dry forest canopy. Biotropica 39: 393-399.

Avalos, G., D. Salazar, and A. L. Araya. 2005. Stilt root structure in the Neotropical palms Iriartea deltoidea and Socratea exorrhiza. Biotropica 37: 44-53.

Avalos, G., and M. Fernández. 2010. Allometry and stilt root structure of the Neotropical palm Euterpe precatoria (Arecaceae) across sites and successional stages. American Journal of Botany 97(3): 1-8.

Avalos, G., and O. Sylverster. 2010. Allometric estimation of total crown leaf area in the neotropical palm Euterpe oleracea at La Selva, Costa Rica. Trees 24: 969-974.

Avalos, G., A. Soto, and W. Alvaro. 2012. Effect of artificial feeders on pollen loads of the hummingbirds of Cerro de La Muerte, Costa Rica. Revista de Biología Tropical 60(1): 65-73.

Chaves, O., and G. Avalos. 2008. Do seasonal changes in light availability influence the inverse leafing phenology of the Neotropical dry forest understory shrub Bonellia nervosa? Revista de Biología Tropical 56: 257-268.

Häger, A. 2010. The effect of climate and soil conditions on tree species turnover in a Tropical Montane Cloud Forest in Costa Rica. Revista de Biología Tropical 58: 1489-1506.

Häger, A. and A. Dohrenbusch. 2009. Baumartenzusammensetzung eines tropischen Bergregenwaldes entlang eines Höhengradienten – Composition of woody plant species along an altitudinal gradient in a tropical montane cloud forest-. Forstarchiv 80(6): 314-322.

Häger, A., and A. Dohrenbusch. 2010. Hydrometeorology and structure of tropical montane cloud forests in north-western Costa Rica under contrasting biophysical conditions. Hydrological Processes Online DOI: 10.1002/hyp.7726.

Hedstrom, I., J. Harris*, and K. Fergus*. 2006. Euglossine bees as potential bio-indicators of coffee farms: Does forest access, on a seasonal basis, affect abundance? Revista de Biología Tropical 54: 1189-1195.

Hedstrom, I., and G. Sahlén. 2003. An extended description of the larva of Megaloprepus caerulatus from Costa Rica. International Journal of Odonatology 6: 1-9.

Molina-Murillo, S. A., and T. M. Smith. 2009. Exploring the use and impact LCA-based information in corporate communications. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 14: 184-194.

Puglia*, A. 2011. The relationship between education and environmentalism: Support for reorienting environmental education. Community, Environment, and Development: An Undergraduate Research Journal 1: online